Terms and Definitions


Learning about IPCA involves using many new terms and legal definitions. RUSH is not a legal resource, but may offer some "ah hah!" for those new to the lingo.




IPCA stands for International Parental Child Abduction.  It occurs when one parent or guardian takes their child from his/her home country without the permission of the other parent or guardian, or without the authorization of a court.​




LBP stands for Left-behind Parent.  There is no official definition of this term, but, as it indicates, it refers to the parent who is left-behind after the taking parent has abducted their children. Some parents prefer the term "seeking parent" instead of "left-behind parent" as the label is less victimizing. 


The Hague Convention


The Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of Child Abduction is often referred to as "the Hague" or "the Convention." It will always come up in conversations with politicians and U.S. government entities. 


The Goldman Act/HR 3212

U.S. law HR 3212, The Sean and David Goldman International Child Abduction Prevention and Return Act is often referred to as "The Goldman Act" or "HR 3212."  This legislation was signed into law in August 2014 and provides the U.S. Department of State unprecedented authority to advocate with foreign nations on behalf of illegally abducted U.S. children and their left-behind parents.



The Federal Bureau of Investigation's National Crime Information Center (NCIC) is an electronic repository of data on crimes and criminals of nationwide interest and a locator file for missing and unidentified persons. NCIC helps law enforcement locate missing children by making information on the child instantly available to law enforcement agencies across the country. [The National Child Search Assistance Act of 1990 requires states to ensure that law enforcement agencies do not impose a waiting period before accepting reports of missing children and that they immediately enter information on the missing child into the state’s law enforcement database and NCIC. The Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006 (Adam Walsh Act) amended the National Child Search Assistance Act by establishing a 2-hour entry requirement for all missing children reports into NCIC.]

Any information provided by RUSH is based not only upon the question presented, but is also general in nature, as the laws in a particular state and/or country differ.  Any response provided by RUSH is for informational purposes only and to assist the person asking the question in understanding the legal environment, not the particulars, surrounding their case.  RUSH does not provide legal advice, and no attorney-client or other type of relationship is established.  Any information obtained through this website or in response to a question is not a substitute for retaining an attorney to review your case and to provide advice based upon a detailed review of the specifics of your case.  The advice provided by RUSH is not provided with the intention of use by the individual in efforts to represent themselves in any legal proceeding, arbitration, and/or mediation.  

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